Reducing human trafficking requires a variety of measures. In connection with prostitution, a general "ban on the sale of sexual services" is often considered to be a remedy.
However, experts in Austria are largely in agreement that it is better to regulate sexual services than to push the existing market into illegality by trying to ban it. Even though prostitution is a particularly precarious and exploitative field of work, many women consciously take the decision to make a living by selling sexual services.
Countries that have introduced a ban show that demand cannot be effectively prevented and pushed sex service providers into illegality, where they are exposed to an even greater risk of exploitation.
Whereas a legal market offers the chance to influence working conditions, allows for controls and makes it easier to identify and support potential victims of sexual violence or coercion (including trafficking).
But also regulation poses great challenges. First, it is important to uphold the sexual integrity of those who work in prostitution – a balancing act, since the activity consists of sexual acts. Second, it is still a working environment characterized by pimping and exploitation, a fact that must be taken into account in all regulations.
Moreover and upmost, given the specific risks involved, it is also necessary to create alternative employment opportunities that make it possible to change at all times.
Legal regulation in Austria
Prostitution, the provision of sexual services by adults, is generally legal in Austria.
According to the current case law of the Supreme Court, contracts for sexual services between sex service providers on the one hand and customers on the other are generally permissible. However, this does not create an obligation to actually provide the sexual service. This restriction is necessary to protect the sexual integrity of sex service providers.
However, the Supreme Court has so far not commented on whether also working contracts are generally admissible.
From a labour law point of view, sex service providers are so far generally regarded as self-employed, regardless of their actual working conditions. Nevertheless, under tax law and/or social security law, they can be classified as employees on the basis of their actual working conditions. In practice, this leads to legal uncertainty.
Another federally relevant regulation is the obligation for sex service providers to undergo an examination for specific sexually transmitted diseases every six weeks.
Though conditions under which sexual services may actually be offered fall within the regulatory competence of the federal states. The provincial legislature regulates the personal requirements (above all the age limit), permissible places of work and requirements for operating a brothel. This has led to a very diverse regulatory landscape.
In order to develop ways to improve working conditions of sex service providers in Austria, an interdisciplinary group of experts headed by the Women's Department was established for the first time in June 2007 as part of the Task Force on Human Trafficking.
This body completed its work in June 2008 with a comprehensive report detailing the legal status of prostitution and its implications. Furthermore, it contains a wide range of measures – especially for the field of federal competences.
In March 2009, a further Working Group on the topic was set up under the Task Force on Human Trafficking. Again under the leadership of the Women's Department and with the mission of a deeper discussion, especially with regard of the competences of the federal states.
This working group is anchored in the National Action Plan on Trafficking in Human Beings as a sub-working group of the Task Force on Human Trafficking. It has summarized its findings in three detailed reports (May 2012 and updated as of March 2015 and May 2018). They contain a detailed description of the relevant legal situation and prevailing problems as well as recommendations and implementation measures already taken. All reports were submitted to the Council of Ministers for information.
Regarding the issue of regulation versus a ban, the Working Group also drafted a Position Paper in which it explains its basic attitude for the regulation of sexual services.
Support and Information
- iBUS – Innsbrucker Beratung und Unterstützung für Sexarbeiter_innen
- LEFÖ: Beratung, Bildung und Begleitung für Migrantinnen (Wien)
- LENA: Beratungsstelle für Prostituierte (Linz)
- MAIZ: Autonomes Zentrum von und für Migrantinnen (Linz)
- PIA: Information & Beratung für SexarbeiterInnen (Salzburg)
- SEXWORKER - Forum von und für SexdienstleisterInnen
- SOPHIE: Beratungszentrum für SexdienstleisterInnen (Wien)
- SXA-Info: Information und Beratung für Sexarbeiterinnen und Multiplikatorinnen und Multiplikatoren in der Steiermark (Graz)
- TALITHA – Caritas Beratungsstelle für SexarbeiterInnen und Opfer von Menschenhandel (Klagenfurt)
- Verein HERZWERK (Wien)
- Third Report of the Working Group on Prostitution (in German): 3. Bericht: Regelung der Prostitution in Österreich – Empfehlungen der Arbeitsgruppe "Prostitution" (Mai 2018) (PDF, 2 MB)
- Position Paper Working Group Prostitution (March 2015) (PDF, 396 KB)
- Second Report of the Working Group on Prostitution, in German: 2. Bericht: Regelung der Prostitution in Österreich - Empfehlungen der Arbeitsgruppe "Prostitution" (März 2015) (PDF, 852 KB)
- First Report of the Working Group on Prostitution, in German: 1. Bericht: Regelung der Prostitution in Österreich - Empfehlungen der Arbeitsgruppe "Prostitution" (Mai 2012) (PDF, 1018 KB)
- Legal situation, its implications and recommendations with special focus on the national level issued by the "ExpertInnenkreis Prostitution", in German: Bericht des ExpertInnenkreises Prostitution: "Prostitution in Österreich. Rechtslage, Auswirkungen, Empfehlungen" (Juni 2008) (PDF, 833 KB)
Sexwork-Info, a comprehensive information booklet for sex workers including addresses of counselling centres and other relevant bodies in Bulgarian, Chinese, Czech, English, German, Hungarian, Romanian and Spanish.
- Sexwork-Info, Informationsbroschüre für Sexdienstleisterinnen und Sexdienstleister (German) (PDF, 414 KB)
- Sexwork-Info, Information brochure for female and male providers of sexual services (English) (PDF, 389 KB)
- Sexwork-Info, Информационна брошура предназначена за жени и мъже заети в сферата на сексуалните услуги (Bulgarian) (PDF, 382 KB)
- Sexwork-Info, 性服务提供者信息手册 (Chinese) (PDF, 727 KB)
- Sexwork-Info, Informacní brožura pro poskytovatelky a poskytovatele sexuálních služeb (Czech) (PDF, 314 KB)
- Sexwork-Info, ltatást nyújtó nok és férfiak számára (Hungarian) (PDF, 283 KB)
- Sexwork-Info, Broșură informativă adresată persoanelor care prestează servicii sexuale (Rumanian) (PDF, 297 KB)
- Sexwork-Info, Folleto informativo para personas que prestan servicio sexual (Spanish) (PDF, 2 MB)
- Amnesty International Position zum Schutz der Menschenrechte von Sexarbeiterinnen und Sexarbeitern, Mai 2016
- Report of the Round Table on Prostitution Nordrhein-Westfahlen, in German: Der Runde Tisch Prostitution Nordrhein-Westfalen, Abschlussbericht "Auftrag, Herausforderungen und Ergebnisse" vom 8.10.2014
- Final Report of the International Comparative Study of Prostitution Policy: Austria and the Netherlands, Den Haag, July 2013